Period of the Reformation and Catholic response

In an essay, answer one (1) question from the list of several questions:


1. Discuss the origins, spread, and fracturing of Protestantism between 1517 and 1550. Be sure to note: 1) the theological and/or organizational differences among the various Protestant leaders and their churches; and 2) specifically where in Europe their new churches take hold and what political factors influence the process of ecclesiastical change.

2. Discuss the Catholic Churchs official responses to the rise of the call for reform in the Lateran Council (1512-1517) and Council of Trent (1545-1563). Why does the former council fail to stop what becomes known as Protestantism? Why does the latter council take so long to begin? Be sure to identify and discuss those things the Council of Trent changes and those it does not. Why does it change what it changes? Why does it not change other things?

3. In what ways was the European exploration and conquest of large parts of the New World after 1490 driven by the intersecting motivations of religion and politics at home in Europe? How did these varying motivations help drive the Columbian Exchange? What was the latter? How did human trafficking become an integral element therein? (This question does not violate what I said about the exams coverage. This material was assigned reading from Hunt and comes specifically from the period of the Reformation and the Catholic response.)

4. Identify and discuss the preconditions which, combined, create the possibility for a religious explosion in the Western Europe of the early 16th Century. (Nota bene: Mere identification of the preconditions simply by listing them will not suffice.)

Textbook (Cite in Chicago/ Turabian): Hunt, Martin, et al. The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures; Fourth Edition (Bedford/St. Martins, 2012). 
Cite quoted material from the textbook (Chapter 16 PDF files attached) and any web sources using footnotes according to the Turabian / University of Chicago style.