Please read chapter attached and answer 4 questions below:

2a) What is the role of top management in setting organizational direction?

2c) What are the differences between a goal and strategy?

2d) What are the similarities and differences in the strategies described in Porters competitive strategies and Miles and Snows typology?

2e) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the resource-based approach versus the goal approach for measuring organizational effectiveness?

Please make sure to write at least one paragraph of 6-10 sentences per question.